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Biografier.

SONTUM, NICOLAY NICOMAYSEN.

1852-1915. Född och död i Bergen.
Norsk ingenjör. 1875 utexaminerades han från Chalmerska Institutet i Göteborg och arbetade sedan som ingenjör i olika städer, tills han 1880 upprättade "Det private Ingeniör- och Opmaalingskontor" i Bergen. Han utförde en rad kaj-, väg- och järnvägsbyggen och blev 1905 anställd som hamningenjör i Bergen. Hedersmedlem av den "Norske Ingeniörforening".


T.U. 1914.


RAMM, NIELS ARNTZEN.

1793-1839.
Norsk officer och kartograf. Född i Vinger, död i Christiania (Oslo). Blev 1809 sekondlöjtnant vid "Nordenfjeldske Infanterikorps", 1812 premierlöjtnant vid "2. Akershuiske infanteribrigade" och 1822 kapten. 1812 blev han knuten till "Den Geografiske Opmaaling", från 1818 som mättekniker. P.g.a. försämrad syn blev han 1835 tvungen att ta avsked. Då kartläggningen 1823 stoppades p.g.a. penningbrist, sökte han tillsammans med kapten Gerhard Munthe (se denne) och fick tillåtelse att nyttja kartläggningens originalkartor för utarbetningen av norska länskartor. Utan något som helst offentligt stöd gav de under åren 1826-32 ut en rad kartor i skala 1:200 000. (Smalenene, Akershus, Hedemarken samt Jarlsberg och Laurvig). "Kapten Ramm varen av de dygtigste Tegnere, som den geografiske Opmaaling har havt i sin Tjeneste."


de Seue.


Euler, Johann


Bland arbeten.
Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire universel raisonné des connaissances humaines.



Ingermanlandiae – Homanns Erben 1734



Tuvstarr, Carex cæspitosa - Lindman, C. A. M, Bilder ur Nordens Flora 1917-26.


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KEULEN, JOHANNES van.

Biografiska uppgifter:1653-1715.
In 1680 was given special endorsement from the Dutch state to print and publish sea charts and sailing instructions. The van Keulen family's best-known work is Nieuwe Groote Ligtende Zee-Fakkel a world atlas in five volumes, published by Johannes's son Gerard and subsequently by Gerard's children and grandchildren. As we have noted in other biographies in this chapter, the Dutch produced a remarkable number of enterprising and prolific map and chart makers but not even the Blaeu and Jansson establishments could rival the vigour of the van Keulen family whose business was founded in 1680 and continued under their name until 1823 and in other names until 1885 when it was finally wound up and the stock dispersed at auction. Throughout the history of the family, the widows of several of the van Keulens played a major part, after their husbands' deaths, in maintaining the continuity of the business. The firm was founded by Johannes van Keulen who was registered as a bookseller in Amsterdam in 1678. In 1680 he published the first part of his Zee Atlas which, over the years, was expanded to 5 volumes and continued in one form or another until 1734. More ambitious and with a far longer and more complicated life was his book of sea charts, the Zee-Fakkel, published in 1681-82 which was still being printed round the year 1800. A major influence in the development of the firm was the acquisition in 1693 of the stock of a rival map publisher, Hendrik Doncker. Although the firm was founded by Johannes van Keulen, he was primarily a publisher; it was his son, Gerard, a talented engraver, mathematician, Hydrographer to the East India Company, who became the mainspring of the business which not only published charts but also books on every aspect of geography, navigation and nautical matters. Gerard Hulst van Keulen was a member of the distinguished van Keulen family, which was amongst the most prolific and highly respected families of Dutch cartographers active between about 1680 and 1822. While the family was renowned for its sea-charts and associated material, Gerard's arrival in the family business in 1757, along with his brother Cornelis Buys, heralded a change in direction. More books appeared and there was greater diversification in the cartographic side of the business.
(Sveriges sjökartor – A. Hedin.)

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